Agriculture is one of the most practiced occupations in many nations despite that it is not uniform all over the world based on the type of crops planted the scale of cultivation the intensity of cultivation the level of mechanism action livestock combination and how farms produce is dispersed it is divided into various categories.
Agriculture and farming largely control the world economy and is an integral factors when it comes to developing nations. It acts as a primary source of income, employment, food, and other basic needs all over the globe. As per the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), agriculture shares 67% of the total population.
In this article, we will be discussing the different types of Agricultural activities done all over the world.
1. Specialized horticulture
As the result of increased demands for horticulture goods in an urbanized area with a dense population specialized horticulture evolved. Horticulture has been effectively used for the cultivation of wine in vineyards. It is highly practiced in the regions of Northern Hungary France and certain areas of the Swiss lake.
Subsistence farming refers to growing crops and rearing animals only for the sole purpose of feeding the farmer and his family. It involves the use of basic farm equipment on a small piece of land. Most farmers that tractor subsistence farming and thought to be poor and unable to afford better seeds and fertilizers.
For such reasons, they farm on the ground with low fertility or terrain which is difficult to work on. There is minimal use of electricity or irrigation practices which results in low yield. The food which is produced is consumed by the farmer and his family and is not sold for a profit.
3. Intensive subsistence (with or without rice as a dominant crop)
This type is carried out in tropical locations with high rainfall and a dense population. Rice is widely used as a dominant crop because it can feed and employ a large number of people in each unit area. The farm work is carried out with the help of manual power for animals. Southeast Asia widely practices this type of farming.
Other crops which are used instead of rice are millet and wheat.
4. The Mediterranean
As the name suggests this type of technique involves raising livestock and cultivating crops in the harsh Mediterranean environment. The crops that are cultivated in this region are citrus fruits and vineyards along with small animals. The majority of crops are sown in the winter season due to winter rains. Horticulture is also practiced alongside Mediterranean farming.
5. Commercial Grain
Commercial grain agriculture is usually practiced in areas with low population density and minimal rainfall. This type of Agricultural practice evolved with the mechanization of farms. The crops that are cultivated in this region are drought-resistant and weather tolerant. This allows them to thrive in a dry environment.
Wheat monoculture is the most common activity in steppes, prairies, and temperate grasslands of Australia and South America.
Just like any other method arable farming involves the cultivation of crops without the use of animals. It can be practiced on a used commercial scale or on a local scale with basic requirements. the crops which are grown in arable farming our annual crops such as plantains, vegetables, cereals, cassava, potatoes, and legumes.
7. Shifting cultivation
You must have heard about this term in your social science books. Shifting cultivation is widely practiced in the tropics. Unlike the other methods of farming, it involves chopping and burning to remove the forest and prepare it for the next cycle of cultivation. the cleared ground is cultivated for 3 to 5 years or until native flora and weeds dominate it.
Farmers abandon the field for a fallow period and clear another forest area for agriculture when this happens. This sounds very similar to subsistence farming which is typically done by hand. The regions of Southeast Asia are highly engaged in this form of Agricultural activity that focuses on grain production.
8. Nomadic Herding
Nomadic herding refers to the process of keeping and grazing livestock on natural pastures. Regions of Saudi Arabia Northern Africa and northern Eurasia which are arid or semi-arid areas practice this form of farming. It is very similar to pastoral farming. It has animals including Sheep cattle camels goats donkeys and horses.
In pastoral farming, animal rearing is the main center of attraction. Unlike nomadic herders, farmers do not go from place to place in search of pasture and water. Instead of doing this, they dwell in settlements. Pasture areas are generated to allow animals to graze. Pastoral farming is largely performed for commercial reasons throughout the world.
Places like South America North America and Australia are some of the world’s most intensively practiced commercial pastoral farming regions due to minimal rainfall. Ranched animals are mostly raised for wool and meat. In fact, dairy farming is also an important part of pastoral agriculture.
10. Commercial plantations
Also known by the name industrialized cultivation for plantations, commercial plantations required huge pieces of land. It is practiced for significant commercial value even when carried out on a small amount of land.
The main types of crops grown here are tea, rubber, coffee, coconut chocolate, grapes, apple, spices, oranges avocados, mangoes, and palm oil. These types of plantations are carried out in the region widely influenced by European colonialism such as Africa Asia and Latin America.