Brown rice is one of the most trending food products that became a popular fad among the masses due to its various qualities. It is formed by removing the surrounding hull of the rice kernel. The whole grain obtained is unpolished and unrefined. The grain retains its nutrient-dense bran and germ layer.
When compared to white rice, brown rice is chewier. The whole grain is inedible with the external hull removed. Brown rice is often related to healthy eating since it is a whole grain. Being a whole grain brown rice is less processed than white rice as its hull, bran, and germ are removed. Due to this brown rice retains nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants which lacks in white rice
It is a seed inedible husk that has been removed via milling. The rice offers up grain with a good amount of bite and chewing. It has a distinctly nutty taste. At room temperature, brown rice lasts about six months before the fatty bits in the bran and germ go rancid. You can make the rice run longer by keeping it in the fridge or freezer.
Different types of Brown Rice
Long grain rice has a long, slender kernel, four times to five times longer compared to its width. When you cook these grains it will result in separate, light, and fluffy rice grains.
Medium grain brown rice has a shorter, wider kernel as compared with long grain rice. The kernel is two to three times longer than its width. When these grains are cooked they become moist and tender. The medium grain has a greater tendency to cling together than longer grains.
This variety of brown rice is short, plump, and chalky white with an opaque kernel. However, once sweet brown rice is cooked it becomes very sticky and loses its shape.
Steps to be followed in Brown Rice Farming
1. Selection of the quality of the seed
The quality of cultivation of brown rice mainly depends upon the quality of the seed being used to grow. This would help to achieve a better crop yield. Therefore you must take proper care while choosing the seed of the best quality. There are a few points that you must keep in mind before sowing.
A proper variety of the seed must be chosen which is supposed to be grown. The seed selected should be clean and free from obvious mixtures of other seeds. The seed must be mature, well developed, and plump in size. The seeds should not show any signs of age and bad storage. Select a seed with a high germinating capacity.
The seeds must be treated with fungicides before sowing. It protects the seed against soil-borne fungi. This also provides a boost to the seedlings.
Seeds must be grown, harvested, and processed correctly to get a better yield potential of any rice variety.
2. Soil Requirement for Brown Rice Farming
Brown grains can grow on a variety of soils like silts, loams, and gravel. It can suit well in alkaline as well as acid soils. However clayey soil is best suited for raising this crop.
Clayey loam soil is considered best due to its water retention capacity which is high. The crop requires a high fertilizer application.
As far as India is concerned, the brown rice crop is versatile and adaptive. It can be grown in most soil varieties and agro-climatic zones. Brown rice can be grown at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3000 meters.
Before planting the brown rice the soil should be in the best physical condition. This enhances crop growth. Preparing the land involves plowing and harrowing to ‘till’ or digging up, mixing, and leveling the soil.
3. Weed Management in Brown Rice Farming
The process of minimizing weed population and keeping their growth below a certain level. This is important to prevent loss in yield and production costs. This is important for good grain quality.
Weeds decrease yield by direct competition for sunlight, nutrients, and water. It also increases production costs, for instance, higher labor or input costs. It may reduce grain quality and price.
Controlling of weeds should be done during land preparation. This is important to reduce the amount of weed pressure in the field. Preparation of land should start 3 to 4 weeks before planting. In addition to this, a level field helps retain constant water levels that control weeds.
4. Water Use and Management
Rice requires a large amount of water. Cultivated rice is particularly sensitive to water shortages. To maintain this requirement rice fields are mostly kept flooded. This is particularly true for lowland rice. Good water management ensures practices to preserve water while ensuring sufficient water for the crop.